What about the immune system?

Viruses are everywhere. There are an estimated 380 trillion viruses inhabiting our bodies (here’s a very interesting article about the human virome). There’s a lot of talk about treating viral disease at the moment, and about developing vaccines, but generally in the mainstream media there is very little information on our own innate resources. I feel compelled to redress the balance a bit, and give some information on how we can protect ourselves.

There are two aspects to not contracting symptoms of a virus. On the one hand it’s about minimising exposure… hand-washing, wearing a mask, avoiding contact… But just as importantly, on the other hand it’s about optimising our immune system. So how do you do that?

IMMUNE SYSTEM 101

1) Get enough good quality sleep. This is so important. Complete darkness and as quiet as possible: get blackout blinds; don’t have electrical equipment on in your bedroom, especially with LEDs; turn your phone off…not just on silent; if your partner snores, consider sleeping in another room. Many couples do this… probably more than you’d imagine

2) Avoid sugar. Sugar suppresses the immune system. If you find yourself with the flu, don’t reach for the cake. It will prolong the duration of the illness. Refined carbohydrates (flour-based products) also break down to simple sugars, so aim for a low carb, high good fat way of eating

Eat the rainbow, get good protein, avoid refined carbohydrates, get plenty of good fats

3) Eat the rainbow ðŸŒˆ: get as many different colours of vegetables in your diet as possible. Different colours of foods are associated with different phytochemicals that have many protective effects on the body.

4) Get enough good protein. We need protein to produce glutathione, which is one of the most powerful antioxidants around…and it’s made by our own cells.

5) Supplement with a high quality, high potency multinutrient. The immune system relies on highly complex interactions with numerous nutrients, including vitamins A, C, D, E, B2, B6, B12, zinc, selenium and folic acid, although that’s not an exhaustive list. Other nutrients are needed to interact with some of these, like cholesterol (to make vitamin D if you’re getting it from sunshine, which we’re not in the winter months), and magnesium, as this is needed for all cellular functions involving vitamin D. This is the one I use myself and highly recommend: *

6) We also need to be taking in good quality fats in order to absorb the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K. We should increase our intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are anti-inflammatory, and reduce intake of the pro-inflammatory omega-6. Supplementing with a pure fish oil with a good EPA/DHA profile is the easiest way to do this. The one I use and recommend is double-distilled under pharmaceutical manufacturing conditions – a rare thing in the supplement industry. *

7) Look after your gut bacteria. Around 70 percent of the immune system is in the gut, and the microbiota in the gut play a huge part in keeping us healthy. Maintain a good balance of gut bacteria by eating plenty of fibrous prebiotic vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, leeks, onions, garlic, asparagus, Jerusalem artichokes, kiwi, konjak), yoghurt and fermented foods if you are not sensitive to histamine. Take probiotics to increase biodiversity of gut flora and encourage the good ones. Lactobacillus rhamnosus is one that also helps to seal a leaky gut, which is essential for a normally functioning immune system. Here’s my recommendation for this, from the cellular nutrition company that is rated #1 in the Nutrisearch Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. *

8) Nurture your spirit and give yourself time to chill and do things that you love to do. Spend time with people who are positive. Meditate, be creative, spend time in nature. Laugh a lot.

9) Minimise stressors. Even watching a horror film will increase your cortisol levels and put your body in fight or flight mode, which means it must concentrate on surviving rather than thriving.

10) Do resistance training (weights) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This has so many positive effects on the body, including increasing production of glutathione, creation of mitochondria and mitochondrial turnover.

Happy immune boosting! Get in touch if you would like any more info on anything here. Always happy to chat ðŸ˜Š Please share if you would like to balance out the sensationalist media reports.

* I work with and use these supplements because of the company’s pharmaceutical-grade manufacturing practices and their commitment to research (80+ scientists, 18 with PhDs). I get a small commission from all sales. The company markets its products through referrals and is not on the high-street. It therefore spends its “marketing” budget on commissions rather than billboards, because the people using and having good results from the products are the best advertisement.

Viruses and cellular nutrition: an immunologist's perspective

Studies as far back as the 1960s and 70s looked at the higher rates of infection in malnourished children in developing countries in comparison with those who were adequately nourished. These were epidemiological (population) studies. But laboratory research has been demonstrating the role of micronutrition in cellular immunity for decades, too.

“There’s no virus that can penetrate a healthy cell fed with nutrition at optimal levels.”

Dr Myron Wentz, PhD Microbiology, specialty in immunology

This was the bold statement made by Dr. Myron Wentz in 2019. On the face of it, this seems like a fairly outrageous claim. But the word “healthy” is key. What if the pandemic is showing us that there is a deeper underlying problem with the health of millions of people (and their cells) on this planet? As individuals, given the situation we are faced with, perhaps now is the time to be listening to the messages being shared by specialists in viral behaviour at a cellular level, and not just the epidemiologists and the creators of computer models looking at viral spread in populations. Dr. Myron Wentz’s credentials as an eminent microbiologist and immunologist put him in the first category.

What makes Dr. Wentz unusual is that he has transferred the decades’ worth of knowledge he gained working with human cells in the laboratory to practical application.

Dr. Wentz founded Gull Laboratories in Salt Lake City in the early 1970s. He spent 20 years developing and manufacturing more than 30 different diagnostic tests designed to detect infections and certain autoimmune disorders. Many of these assays were FDA firsts, and Gull’s greatest success was the creation of the first commercially available test for the diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Dr. Wentz’s painstaking work with cellular nutrition provided him with a unique knowledge of how to keep human cell cultures alive in the laboratory indefinitely. He arrived at a nutrient formula that made his cells so healthy that he could not get the viruses he was trying to introduce to them to take hold. This, then, is the background to his bold statement above. When it came to developing viral diagnostic kits, cells brimming with health were unhelpful to Dr. Wentz’s research as they would continually reject the viruses, and so something had to be done to weaken the cells to make them susceptible.

Interestingly, the researchers at Gull Laboratories used iron (a pro-oxidant) initially, to try to weaken the cells, but they were weakened so drastically that they died. (This should be a warning to anyone using iron supplements indiscriminately for “energy”. Iron supplementation should only be done if you have diagnosed anaemia: it is known to contribute to the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which is part of the aetiology of heart disease.) When an excess amount of copper was introduced, however, this was found to weaken the cells just enough to accept the virus.

A vastly complex universe of enzymatic and chemical reactions — quadrillions of them — happening in our cells every second of our lives.

It is countless experiences like these (working with each individual nutrient in varying doses and potencies, exploring the synergies between nutrients, and the interactions with enzymes) that are pieced together to form a complete understanding of what the different types of human cells need to function to their maximum potential. That potential includes the ability to ward off viruses and deal with pathogens and toxins, free radicals and metabolic waste products. The whole picture is vastly complex, and 40 quadrillion reactions take place in our bodies every single second. The scientists who understand the full picture are rare, but even rarer are those who take this knowledge and apply it at the macro level — in the cells of real, everyday people.

Gull Laboratory’s contributions to the field of disease detection played a critical role in the world health arena, but Dr. Wentz believed the prevention of disease was even more important. Free radicals in the human body are believed to be the cause of most degenerative diseases, and Dr. Wentz saw the need for supplementing with antioxidants to counter the negative effects of free radicals. And as we’ve seen, a cell weakened by oxidative damage and degeneration is a cell that is less able to defend itself from viruses and other pathogens. Dr. Wentz concluded that the single most effective thing people could do to prevent disease was to receive proper nutrition at the most basic level—in each individual human cell.

Looking into the nutritional supplements available on the market at the time, Dr. Wentz says that there was no product on the shelves that would have kept his cell cultures alive in the lab. Dr. Michael Colgan, PhD, an internationally renowned research scientist in the field of nutrition and anti-aging, recognised Dr. Wentz as having unique scientific knowledge that was transferrable to human health, and urged him to bring this to the wider public. He said of the work going on at Gull:

On the research front, the latest development will yield nutrient supplements superior to anything that has been made before. Respected microbiologist Dr Myron Wentz of Gull Laboratories, Salt Lake City, Utah, is starting to test for nutritional optima by growing human cells in vitro (in the test tube). By feeding the cells different nutrient combinations, he aims to determine which combinations produce the best growth, the best resistance to disease, and the longest life. It is an advance in nutrition science that coincides well with the dawn of the third millennium.

Dr Michael Colgan, Optimum Sports Nutrition, 1993

Dr. Wentz took the decision in 2007 to close Gull Laboratories and divert his knowledge and resources into setting up his own cellular nutrition company.

“My assays became the gold standard in the diagnostics industry because I grew healthier cells than others did.”

Dr. Myron Wentz

“The products I set out to develop two decades ago were not the result of a list of ingredients that I got out of a book. They were born from years of experience of observing the effects of individual nutrients on the health and longevity of the cells in my cultures. My assays became the gold standard in the diagnostics industry because I grew healthier cells than others did. I nutriented my cells better than my colleagues, which allowed me to create non-defective and complete viral antigens.

“Every virus has a target host cell that it prefers, and since I produced assays for every human virus of diagnostic importance, I grew many different kinds of human cells. To do that, I needed to provide these cells with ideal growing conditions, and I especially needed to provide them with nutrition containing the right ingredients, in the right form, and in the correct balance.

“I knew that certain elements interacted with each other and therefore needed to be in precise balance in the body. It’s so important for cell function that nutrients be in proper balance. I made it our goal from day one to develop and provide the most complete and potent antioxidant formulation possible, and we have done that and continue to do that. I assure you, there is much more to creating life-changing products to simply choosing ingredients from a list.”

Dr. Myron Wentz — Recipient of the Albert Einstein Award for
Outstanding Achievement in the Life Sciences

We as living, breathing humans are anything but an in vitro experiment, faced as we are with the daily onslaughts of pollution, stress, toxins, poor sleep, too little or too much exercise — the variable parameters are endless; but every endeavour needs a benchmark — an ideal which we can strive for on a daily basis. As far as our quest for optimum health and lifespan goes, the in vitro tests provide the foundation to ongoing research into optimum nutrition — the piece of the health jigsaw that is probably the easiest one to follow.

Nearly thirty years on from Dr Colgan’s accolade, Dr. Wentz’s vision has materialised into a billion dollar company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. His insistence on scientific rigour in striving towards his lofty goal of a world “free from pain and suffering” translates into a research and development team with over 80 scientists including 18 with PhDs. An investment of such proportion means that the company stays at the forefront of nutritional science, and engages in groundbreaking research into subjects like cell-signalling, Traditional Chinese Medicine, mental health, the microbiome and personalised nutrition, all of which are being implemented in the company’s latest product lines and are trialled on patients at their cutting-edge research hospital, Sanoviv.

Collaborative research with the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 2019

The unique story of a nutritional company born out of decades of viral diagnostics research and development is an especially poignant one while the world is obsessing about protecting our cells and bodies from Coronavirus. But the significance shouldn’t stop there, and the main focus of USANA Health Sciences always has been on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. Perhaps this unprecedented situation of a world on lockdown will create a new paradigm — one where people start to take charge of their health and protect themselves from both chronic disease as well as viral or bacterial infections.

3:25 mins: Some of the researchers at USANA speak briefly on the company’s R&D activities

For information on USANA’s nutraceutical range, please use the form below to request a catalogue or to set up customer account to obtain wholesale prices.

We are looking to expand our team! If you would like more information on partnering with USANA Health Sciences as an independent distributor, please get in touch using the contact form below.

[contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″/][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″/][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″/][/contact-form]

Viruses and cellular nutrition: an immunologist’s perspective

Studies as far back as the 1960s and 70s looked at the higher rates of infection in malnourished children in developing countries in comparison with those who were adequately nourished. These were epidemiological (population) studies. But laboratory research has been demonstrating the role of micronutrition in cellular immunity for decades, too.

“There’s no virus that can penetrate a healthy cell fed with nutrition at optimal levels.”

Dr Myron Wentz, PhD Microbiology, specialty in immunology

This was the bold statement made by Dr. Myron Wentz in 2019. On the face of it, this seems like a fairly outrageous claim. But the word “healthy” is key. What if the pandemic is showing us that there is a deeper underlying problem with the health of millions of people (and their cells) on this planet? As individuals, given the situation we are faced with, perhaps now is the time to be listening to the messages being shared by specialists in viral behaviour at a cellular level, and not just the epidemiologists and the creators of computer models looking at viral spread in populations. Dr. Myron Wentz’s credentials as an eminent microbiologist and immunologist put him in the first category.

What makes Dr. Wentz unusual is that he has transferred the decades’ worth of knowledge he gained working with human cells in the laboratory to practical application.

Dr. Wentz founded Gull Laboratories in Salt Lake City in the early 1970s. He spent 20 years developing and manufacturing more than 30 different diagnostic tests designed to detect infections and certain autoimmune disorders. Many of these assays were FDA firsts, and Gull’s greatest success was the creation of the first commercially available test for the diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Dr. Wentz’s painstaking work with cellular nutrition provided him with a unique knowledge of how to keep human cell cultures alive in the laboratory indefinitely. He arrived at a nutrient formula that made his cells so healthy that he could not get the viruses he was trying to introduce to them to take hold. This, then, is the background to his bold statement above. When it came to developing viral diagnostic kits, cells brimming with health were unhelpful to Dr. Wentz’s research as they would continually reject the viruses, and so something had to be done to weaken the cells to make them susceptible.

Interestingly, the researchers at Gull Laboratories used iron (a pro-oxidant) initially, to try to weaken the cells, but they were weakened so drastically that they died. (This should be a warning to anyone using iron supplements indiscriminately for “energy”. Iron supplementation should only be done if you have diagnosed anaemia: it is known to contribute to the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which is part of the aetiology of heart disease.) When an excess amount of copper was introduced, however, this was found to weaken the cells just enough to accept the virus.

A vastly complex universe of enzymatic and chemical reactions — quadrillions of them — happening in our cells every second of our lives.

It is countless experiences like these (working with each individual nutrient in varying doses and potencies, exploring the synergies between nutrients, and the interactions with enzymes) that are pieced together to form a complete understanding of what the different types of human cells need to function to their maximum potential. That potential includes the ability to ward off viruses and deal with pathogens and toxins, free radicals and metabolic waste products. The whole picture is vastly complex, and 40 quadrillion reactions take place in our bodies every single second. The scientists who understand the full picture are rare, but even rarer are those who take this knowledge and apply it at the macro level — in the cells of real, everyday people.

Gull Laboratory’s contributions to the field of disease detection played a critical role in the world health arena, but Dr. Wentz believed the prevention of disease was even more important. Free radicals in the human body are believed to be the cause of most degenerative diseases, and Dr. Wentz saw the need for supplementing with antioxidants to counter the negative effects of free radicals. And as we’ve seen, a cell weakened by oxidative damage and degeneration is a cell that is less able to defend itself from viruses and other pathogens. Dr. Wentz concluded that the single most effective thing people could do to prevent disease was to receive proper nutrition at the most basic level—in each individual human cell.

Looking into the nutritional supplements available on the market at the time, Dr. Wentz says that there was no product on the shelves that would have kept his cell cultures alive in the lab. Dr. Michael Colgan, PhD, an internationally renowned research scientist in the field of nutrition and anti-aging, recognised Dr. Wentz as having unique scientific knowledge that was transferrable to human health, and urged him to bring this to the wider public. He said of the work going on at Gull:

On the research front, the latest development will yield nutrient supplements superior to anything that has been made before. Respected microbiologist Dr Myron Wentz of Gull Laboratories, Salt Lake City, Utah, is starting to test for nutritional optima by growing human cells in vitro (in the test tube). By feeding the cells different nutrient combinations, he aims to determine which combinations produce the best growth, the best resistance to disease, and the longest life. It is an advance in nutrition science that coincides well with the dawn of the third millennium.

Dr Michael Colgan, Optimum Sports Nutrition, 1993

Dr. Wentz took the decision in 2007 to close Gull Laboratories and divert his knowledge and resources into setting up his own cellular nutrition company.

“My assays became the gold standard in the diagnostics industry because I grew healthier cells than others did.”

Dr. Myron Wentz

“The products I set out to develop two decades ago were not the result of a list of ingredients that I got out of a book. They were born from years of experience of observing the effects of individual nutrients on the health and longevity of the cells in my cultures. My assays became the gold standard in the diagnostics industry because I grew healthier cells than others did. I nutriented my cells better than my colleagues, which allowed me to create non-defective and complete viral antigens.

“Every virus has a target host cell that it prefers, and since I produced assays for every human virus of diagnostic importance, I grew many different kinds of human cells. To do that, I needed to provide these cells with ideal growing conditions, and I especially needed to provide them with nutrition containing the right ingredients, in the right form, and in the correct balance.

“I knew that certain elements interacted with each other and therefore needed to be in precise balance in the body. It’s so important for cell function that nutrients be in proper balance. I made it our goal from day one to develop and provide the most complete and potent antioxidant formulation possible, and we have done that and continue to do that. I assure you, there is much more to creating life-changing products to simply choosing ingredients from a list.”

Dr. Myron Wentz — Recipient of the Albert Einstein Award for
Outstanding Achievement in the Life Sciences

We as living, breathing humans are anything but an in vitro experiment, faced as we are with the daily onslaughts of pollution, stress, toxins, poor sleep, too little or too much exercise — the variable parameters are endless; but every endeavour needs a benchmark — an ideal which we can strive for on a daily basis. As far as our quest for optimum health and lifespan goes, the in vitro tests provide the foundation to ongoing research into optimum nutrition — the piece of the health jigsaw that is probably the easiest one to follow.

Nearly thirty years on from Dr Colgan’s accolade, Dr. Wentz’s vision has materialised into a billion dollar company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. His insistence on scientific rigour in striving towards his lofty goal of a world “free from pain and suffering” translates into a research and development team with over 80 scientists including 18 with PhDs. An investment of such proportion means that the company stays at the forefront of nutritional science, and engages in groundbreaking research into subjects like cell-signalling, Traditional Chinese Medicine, mental health, the microbiome and personalised nutrition, all of which are being implemented in the company’s latest product lines and are trialled on patients at their cutting-edge research hospital, Sanoviv.

Collaborative research with the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 2019

The unique story of a nutritional company born out of decades of viral diagnostics research and development is an especially poignant one while the world is obsessing about protecting our cells and bodies from Coronavirus. But the significance shouldn’t stop there, and the main focus of USANA Health Sciences always has been on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. Perhaps this unprecedented situation of a world on lockdown will create a new paradigm — one where people start to take charge of their health and protect themselves from both chronic disease as well as viral or bacterial infections.

3:25 mins: Some of the researchers at USANA speak briefly on the company’s R&D activities

For information on USANA’s nutraceutical range, please use the form below to request a catalogue or to set up customer account to obtain wholesale prices.

We are looking to expand our team! If you would like more information on partnering with USANA Health Sciences as an independent distributor, please get in touch using the contact form below.

[contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″/][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″/][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″/][/contact-form]

Are we defenseless?

When it comes to viral infections, national health policies focus heavily on disease management and vaccination — which have their place. But this approach leaves a vacuum: Mainstream media like to perpetuate the belief that we are helpless and incapable of protecting our own health, and sadly, there seems to be an absence of any mention of strengthening the immune system or using the powerful vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals as well as the other physical and mental tools at our disposal. Such talk is being increasingly dismissed as fake news or dangerous quackery. The body’s innate ability to heal and protect itself given the right tools has almost become a taboo subject. (The BBC quickly ended an interview with a health expert recently who started to talk about the role of vitamin D in health.) Thankfully though, once you start looking for the information, it’s still out there.

It’s not such a simple matter, admittedly. The immune system isn’t infallible, and it would be irresponsible to claim that it is. And clearly, the reality is that the millions of people severely affected by flu every year, for instance, are being failed by their immune systems. Or are they?

I’m going out on a limb here, but could it be that we are failing our immune systems, and have been for most of our lives? Walter Willet, an eminent epidemiologist at Harvard, has been studying the relationship between health and diet & lifestyle for decades. No-one is more qualified than him to make the following pronouncement:

Among U.S. adults, more than 90 percent of type 2 diabetes, 80 percent of CAD, 70 percent of stroke, and 70 percent of colon cancer are potentially preventable by a combination of nonsmoking, avoidance of overweight, moderate physical activity, healthy diet, and moderate alcohol consumption (Willett 2002).

Who is at risk?

Granted, the media and government agents do their best to spread the message about those who are more prone to viral infections. These include the aged, those with a chronic disease such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, those with an autoimmune condition, those with asthma or other pulmonary conditions… the list goes on. In China, statistics from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention show that people with cardiovascular conditions and diabetes have the highest and second-highest number of deaths from COVID-19 (11 and 8 percent). In diabetes, blood sugar management is crucial, but especially when an infection is present, as sugar impairs the ability of white blood cells to fight pathogens. And it is sugars (including refined carbohydrates) that are most likely to have been the cause of the disease in the first place. The numbers of people with these conditions — and thus, those who are more at risk of severe complications from a viral infection — are increasing year on year.

Responsibility for our own health?

This grim situation could be the catalyst to creating a new health paradigm in the UK and elsewhere. It could serve as a wake-up call for people to take charge of their health. But such statements about taking responsibility are often met with indignation, as the implication is that those who are sick have brought it on themselves. Unfortunately, as Prof. Willett would no doubt agree, this may be the harsh reality that we have to face up to, although the caveat is that for many of those stuck in the pharmaceutical paradigm, the information that they need for being proactive is simply not available through the channels they would normally turn to. With that assumption of responsibility by individuals comes the responsibility of governments not to allow their health and health information policies to be determined by the wishes of the pharmaceutical industry and the Big Food and Big Ag players.

Treatment and protection

Of course, in an acute or life-threatening situation, anything the medical profession can do to mitigate the effects of a virus is absolutely essential – hydration, respiratory assistance, fever control (although that is a contentious subject in itself).

But what about the rest of the population? Is there anything to be done that can put our minds at ease and our bodies in a better position to overcome viruses if (or when) we are exposed to them?

Positive attitude

A break from the media would be an excellent place to start. One factor, among others, which Walter Willett omits in the quote above is the mental and emotional component to health. Many studies have demonstrated that the more optimistic a person is, the better their immune system functions. Fear, negativity and worry have a tangible, physiological effect on the body. Conversely, traits which bolster the immune system include positive mental attitude, and the ability to deal with stress and challenges.

For an overview of practical ways to optimise the immune system, see my previous blog post here.

Cellular nutrition

In terms of feeding the cells to function as best they can, there are countless studies on the effects of individual nutrients. There is a tendency for researchers as well as the media to home in on one nutrient at a time, and since there are so many synergies at work in our cells and systems, this can be a short-sighted approach, and one which is often at the bottom of the sensationalist headlines that such-and-such-a-vitamin is the latest evil quackery to be avoided, or at the very least, “expensive colourful urine”.

During an active infection, the following regimen is recommended (with thanks to Drs M Murray and J Pizzorno*) as a general approach to supporting immune function:

  • Rest
  • Hydrate (in the case of coronavirus, it is being widely recommended to drink hot (but not too hot!) liquids, rather than cold; preferably soups and herb teas — no fruit juices!
  • Limit sugar consumption drastically! Sugar depresses the immune system
  • Take a well-researched high-potency multivitamin and mineral formula that’s manufactured under pharmaceutical GMP conditions, e.g. CellSentials
  • Vitamin C: 500 mg every two hours
  • Grape seed extract, 50 to 100 mg per day
  • Vitamin D: 2000-4000 IU per day (ideally according to measured blood levels) (2000 IU is contained in the CellSentials above, at full dose)
  • A source of beta-glucans, e.g. maitake, shiitake or reishi; USANA Proglucamune (if in the UK, please contact us direct for this product so we can set you up with your own account, as this comes from the US)

For solid cellular nutritional support, the best brains in the nutritional research world have spent decades working out the optimum combinations and doses of nutrients. Are we adding an unnecessary element of chance into the nutrition equation if we self-prescribe? Can we read an article in a health magazine about magnesium and decide that we are deficient and need to supplement, or see an advertisement for vitamin C tablets in the flu season and think that they are a panacea for immune health? Some rare souls may have the expertise to interpret the peer-reviewed research and formulate their own comprehensive protocols, but there are PhD scientists who spend their working lives doing that for the top nutrition companies, so I would venture to say that it’s best for most of us to leave that job to them.

*Murray, M and Pizzorno, J (2012) The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Atria, New York